Geomorphology is a scientific discipline concerned with the research of relief. The term relief refers to forms on the surface of the Earth that are created and changed under the influence of the internal and external forces of the Earth, both in the geological past and the contemporary period. In other words, the relief is formed over time by the influence of tectonic and magmatic movements and external agents (water movement, temperature change, ice, wind, life forms) on the bedrock.

The beginning of development of geomorphology as a scientific discipline in Serbia was in the late 19th century, although geomorphological contents could previously been found in the travelogues and various geographical surveys. It is believed that the modern relief of Serbia originated during the neotectonic period, roughly from the Miocene to the present, that is, in the last 23 million years. Over this long period of time there had also been developed and redeveloped forms that in contemporary conditions have the properties of fossil, relict and recent relief.

The largest relief on the territory of Serbia had been formed within the large-scale geotectonic units of the Dinarides, the Vardar zone, the Serbian-Macedonian mass, the Carpatho-Balkanides, the Pannonian basin and on the outskirts of the Valachian-Pontic basin in the east of Serbia.

The highest point in Serbia is the peak of Đeravica (2656 m) on Prokletije Mt., and the lowest point is the mouth of the Great Timok in the Danube at 28 m of altitude (It is interesting that, actually, the lowest point of Serbia is 21 m above sea level on the land mine of Drmno within the anthropogenic relief).

Contemporary active, external processes affecting the relief of Serbia can be classified into four groups:

Slope processes (diluvial, proluvial and colluvial) Fluvial process (linear impact of water movement) Karst process (dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone) Periglacial process (seasonal freezing of the bedrock)

The eluvial process can conditionally be added to these processes. It forms a loose substrate (loose soil) that can be affected by geomorphological processes. The activity of contemporary, but also relict processes, such as abrasion of the sea-lake basins of the Neogene, glacial process during the Pleistocene or old tectonic and magmatic movements, has formed representative forms of relief, the most significant of which have been selected in the Inventory of Geomorphological Heritage of Serbia (2005).

In the Inventory of Geoheritage Sites of Serbia, within the list of sites of geomorphological heritage, 152 forms are selected, precisely in the group of karst landforms there are 48 of them, in the fluvial landforms (48), erosion landforms (11), eolian landforms (7), Paleovolcanic landforms (11), glacial landforms (21) and periglacial landforms (6). The evaluation of geomorphological heritage of Serbia was also carried out for the purpose of the Inventory.
Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 14.50.20
Đerdap gorge the Europe’s largest river gorge
Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 14.52.10
Đavolja Varoš (Devil’s town), an example of selective denudation and ravines
Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 14.53.25
Glacial relief of Šar Mountain, an example of relict Pleistocene glaciation on the Balkan Peninsula.
Deliblatska peščara (Deliblato Sands), an example of relict eolian relief in Europe

Vratnjanske prerasti (Vratnjan stone bridges)a specific type of underground and surface karst
Screen Shot 2019-06-24 at 10.21.25
Exhumed tropical karst of Beljanica
Screen Shot 2019-06-24 at 10.22.28
Karst valley Divljakovac near Resavska cave
Screen Shot 2019-06-24 at 10.24.04
The example of mountain karst on the karst plain
Valožje of Suva planina Mt.
Screen Shot 2019-06-24 at 10.25.21
The canyons of Lazareva river and Miruša river


Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 14.20.36
Ovčar-Kablar gorge
Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 14.22.21
Vladikina ploča on Stara planina Mt.
Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 14.23.37
Rosomača river canyon
Screen Shot 2019-07-03 at 14.24.36
Hummocks of Vražji kamen
- Prosečnik and other relief forms and phenomena
In the scope of regular activities of the Institute for Nature Conservation of Serbia, a part of geomorphological heritage has been protected as the Monuments of Nature: Đavolja varoš (Devil's Town), Lazarev canyon, Stone bridges in the Vratna canyon, Zamna canyon with stone bridge, the stone bridge Samar on Kučaj, the valley of the Bigar stream, the limestone tufa accumulation near Tumane and others. In the procedure of getting the protected status are the lava dome of Borački krš, the hummocks of Vražji kamen-Prosečnik in the valley of Pčinja river, Baranica as part of the gorge of Trgoviški Timok and Blederija near Kladovo. In addition to the Monuments of Nature, the most of geomorphological heritage is protected within major areas and landscape units such as the National Parks Đerdap, Kopaonik and Šar Mountain, Nature Parks Stara planina, Zlatibor, Golija and others, Nature Reserves Deliblato sands, Uvac river gorge and Osanica river gorge, mountains Suva planina, Rtanj and others.